James Bone is the author of Cognitive Hack: The New Battleground in Cybersecurity–The Human Mind (Francis and Taylor, 2017) and is a contributing author for Compliance Week, Corporate Compliance Insights, and Life Science Compliance Updates. Bone is a lecturer at Columbia University’s School of Professional Studies in the Enterprise Risk Management program and consults on ERM practice. He is the Founder and President of Global Compliance Associates, LLC and Executive Director of TheGRCBlueBook. Bone founded Global Compliance Associates, LLC to create the first cognitive risk management advisory practice.
Christopher P. Skroupa: What is the idea behind a cognitive hack?
James Bone: When we think of hacking we think of a network being hacked remotely by a computer nerd sitting in a bedroom using code she’s written to steal personal data, money or just to see if it is possible. The idea of a character breaking network security to take control of law enforcement systems has been imprinted in our psyche from images portrayed in TV crime shows however the real story is much more complex and simple in execution.
The idea behind a cognitive hack is simple. Cognitive hack refers to the use of a computer or information system – social media, etc. – to launch a different kind of attack. The sole intent of a cognitive attack relies on its effectiveness to “change human users’ perceptions and corresponding behaviors in order to be successful.” Robert Mueller’s indictment of 13 Russian operatives is an example of a cognitive hack taken to the extreme but demonstrates the effectiveness and subtleties of an attack of this nature.
Mueller’s indictment of an elaborately organized and surprisingly low-cost “troll farm” – set up to launch an “information warfare” operation to impact U.S. political elections from Russian soil using social media platforms – is extraordinary and dangerous. The danger of these attacks is only now becoming clear, and it is also important to understand the simplicity of a cognitive hack. To be clear, the Russian attack is extraordinary in scope, purpose and effectiveness, however these attacks happen every day for much more mundane purposes.
Most of us think of these attacks as email phishing campaigns designed to lure you to click on an unsuspecting link to gain access to your data. Russia’s attack is simply a more elaborate and audacious version to influence what we think, how we vote and foment dissent between political parties and the citizenry of a country. That is what makes Mueller’s detailed indictment even more shocking. Consider for example how TV commercials, advertisers and politicians, yes even our elected officials, have been very effective at using “sound bites” to simplify their product story – using it on certain target markets. The art of persuasion is a simple way to explain a cognitive hack which is an attack that is focused on the subconscious.
Skroupa: If a cognitive hack is an attack focused on the subconscious mind, how can it be defended against?
Bone: It is instructive to look at the Russian attack rationally from its [Russia’s] perspective in order to objectively consider how this threat can be deployed on a global scale. Instead of spending billions of dollars in a military arms race, countries are becoming armed with the ability to influence the citizens of a country for a few million dollars simply through information warfare. A new, more advanced cadre of computer scientists are being groomed to defend and build security for and against these sophisticated attacks. This is simply an old trick disguised in 21st century technology through the use of the Internet.
A new playbook has been refined to hack political campaigns and used effectively around the world as documented in an article published on Mar. 31, 2016. For more than 10 years, elections in Latin America have become a testing ground for how to hack an election. The drama in the U.S. reads like one episode of a long running soap opera complete with “hackers for hire,” “middle-men,” political conspiracy and sovereign country interference.
Now that we know the rules have changed, what can be done about this form of cyber-attack? Academics, government researchers and law enforcement have studied this problem for decades, but the general public is largely unaware of how pervasive the risk is and the threat it imposes on our society and the next generation of Internet users.
I wrote a book, Cognitive Hack: The New Battleground in Cybersecurity…the Human Mind, to chronicle this risk and proposed a cognitive risk framework to bring awareness to the problem. A greater, conscientious effort is needed to raise awareness by every organization, government official and risk professionals around the world. A new cognitive risk framework is needed to better understand these threats, identify and assess new variants of the attack and develop contingencies rapidly.
Skroupa: What impact does social media have in cognitive risk?
Bone: Social media has unwittingly become a platform of choice for nation state hackers – who can easily hide the identify of organizations and resources involved in these attacks. Social media platforms are largely unregulated, and are therefore not required to verify the identity and source of funding to set up and operate these kinds of operations. This may change given the stakes involved.
Just as banks and other financial services firms are required to identify new account owners – and their source of funding – technology providers of social media sites may also be used as a venue for raising and laundering illicit funds to carry out fraud or attacks on a sovereign state. We now have explicit evidence of the threat this poses to emerging and mature democracies alike.
Regulation is not enough to address an attack this complex, and existing training programs have proven to be ineffective. Traditional risk frameworks and security measures are not designed to deal with attacks of this nature. Fortunately, a handful of information security professionals are now considering how to implement new approaches to mitigate the risk of cognitive hacks. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), is also working on an expansive new training program for information security specialists specifically designed to understand the human element of security yet the public is largely on its own. The knowledge gap is huge, and the general public needs more than an easy to remember slogan.
Skroupa: Where does that leave the evolving role of leadership in cyber security?
Bone: A national debate is needed between industry leaders to tackle security. Silicon Valley and the tech industry, writ large, must also step up and play a leadership role in combating these attacks by forming self-regulatory consortiums to deal with the diversity and proliferation of cyber threats through vulnerabilities in new technology launches and the development of more secure networking systems. The cost of cyber risk is far exceeding the rate of inflation, and it will eventually become a drag on corporate earnings and national growth rates as well. Businesses must look beyond the “insider threat” model of security risk and reconsider how the work environment contributes to risk exposure to cyber attacks.
Cognitive risks require a new mental model for understanding “trust” on the Internet. Organizations must begin to develop new trust measures for doing business over the Internet and with business partners. The idea of security must also be expanded to include more advanced risk assessment methodologies, along with a redesign of the human-computer interaction to mitigate cognitive hacks.
Cognitive hacks are asymmetric in nature – meaning that the downside of these attacks can significantly outweigh the benefits of risk-taking if not addressed in a timely manner. Because of the asymmetric nature of a cognitive hack attackers seek the easiest route to gain access. Email is one example of a low-cost, and very effective attack vector which seeks to leverage the digital footprint we leave on the Internet.
Imagine a sandy beach where you leave footprints as you walk but instead of the tide erasing your footprints they remain forever present with bits of data about you all along the way. Web accounts, free Wi-Fi networks, mobile phone apps, shopping websites, etc. create a digital profile that may be more public than you realize. Now consider how your employee’s behavior on the Internet during work connects back to this digital footprint – and you are starting to get an idea of how simple it is for hackers to breach a network.
A cognitive risk framework begins with an assessment of Risk Perceptions related to cyber risks at different levels of the firm. The Risk Perceptions assessment creates a “Cognitive Map” of the organization’s cyber awareness. This is called Cognitive Governance, and is the first of five pillars to manage asymmetric risks. The other four pillars are driven from the findings in the cognitive map.
A cognitive map uncovers the blind spots we all experience when a situation at work, or on the Internet exceeds our experience with how to deal with it successfully. Natural blind spots are used by hackers to deceive us into changing one’s behavior to click a link, a video, a promotional ad or even what we read. Trust, deception and blind spots are just a few of the tools we must incorporate into a new toolkit called the cognitive risk framework.
Skroupa: For now, what’s the conclusion regarding Mueller’s investigation?
Bone: There is little doubt that Mueller’s investigation into the sources and methods used by the Russians to influence the 2016 election will reveal more surprises, but one thing is no longer in doubt…the Russians have a new cognitive weapon that is deniable, but still traceable for now. They are learning from Mueller’s findings and will get better – will we?
James Bone will be a panelists on the discussion Integrating Cyber Security into Business Operations: Innovations in Mitigating the Potential of a Breach at the Cyber Risk Governance program in New York, NY on March 13.
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